Garden Pond

Garden Pond Service Tips on Installation and Upkeep

Calculating Liner:

To Calculate Liner Length:
L = Max Length + Twice Depth + 3’
To Calculate Liner Width:
W = Max Width + Twice Depth) + 3’
Pond Opening: 10’ Long, 8’ Wide, 2’ Deep:
Calculate Length: 10’ + 2(2’) + 3’ = 17’
Calculate Width: 8’ + 2(2’) + 3’ = 15’
Allow approximately 1.5’ of overlap around the pond’s perimeter. 3’ included in L & W.

Estimate Gallons:

Volume For Average Pond:  

WIDTH x LENGTH x Depth = Cubic Feet
Cubic Feet x 7.5 = GALLONS

Volume For Circular Pond:

RAD x RAD x 3.14 x DEPTH = Cubic Feet
Cubic Feet x 7.5 = GALLONS

Knowing Gallons Helps With:

  • Sizing Pump  
  • Adding Treatments  
  • Sizing Filter  
  • Stocking Fish

Perfect Rectangle
EX: 11’ x 16’ x 2’ – 352 Cu. Ft.
352 (cubic feet) x 7.5 gal = 2640 gallons

Estimated gallons doesn’t take rock displacement into consideration. A perfect rectangle pond if estimated to have 2640 gallons, but with gravel one has approx. 900 gallons.

Estimated Rock Tonnage In Construction:

Boulders In Pond: Pond Length x Pond Width ÷ 65 = _______ Tons

Rocks In Pond: Tons Of Boulders x .45 = _______ Tons

Boulders In Stream: Every 10’ = ¾ Ton

Rocks In Stream: Every 10’ Section = ½ Ton
Because rocks vary in size, use these formulas as general guidelines.

Typical Garden Pond:

Surface of pond is constantly skimmed of floating debris. Gravel Allows For: Colonization of bacteria, hiding man-made items for a natural look & allows you to place water plants.


  • Underlayment, Liner  
  • Submersible Pump  
  • Skimmer  
  • Waterfall Filter


  • Underwater Lights & Transformer UV Clarifier Plants

If average depth is greater than 2’, consider one of the following:  

  • Bottom Suction
  • Bottom Drain
  • Vacuum Bottom Drain

Avg. Waterfall Flow:

A good rule of thumb is to try to achieve 150 gallons per inch of width.
EX: 36” Weir x 150 GPH = 5400 GPH

Size Waterfall Reservoir:

Rule Of Thumb:
Reservoir should hold 2 to 3 times amount of water in stream & falls.

Water Volume In Stream Bed:

Stream EX: 3’ Wide x 20’ Long
3’ x 20’ x .33 x 7.5 = 148.5 Gallons
Approximately 150 gallons in stream.

Water In A Pump Vault:

Rule of thumb: 40% Water, 60% Rock

Benefits of Basin Matrix:

  • Basin matrix can replace up to 90% of gravel that is traditionally placed in pond free reservoirs.  
  • They have up to 3 times more storage capacity than gravel.  
  • Allows for smaller reservoir.  
  • Easier to maintain water levels.

Disappearing Waterfall & Stream:  

Enjoy A Backyard Waterfall w/o The Pond. Disappearing waterfalls and stream can be any size!
Since there is no standing water at the base, maintenance needs are minimal.

  • Biological filtration is less important.  
  • Mechanical filtration is less important.  
  • Algaecides may be added to keep water clear.  
  • Not required to run pump 24 hours a day.  



  • Underlayment  
  • Liner Pump Vault  
  • Submersible Pump  
  • Matrix Box(es)  
  • Waterfall Weir


  • Underwater Lights & Transformer  
  • Autofill Valve  
  • Plants

In-Line Pumps

garden pond in-line pumpsIn-line pumps are amongst the most efficient pumps in flow comparison. Ideally used in flooded suction application where pump is located below water level. Can be used as grade level w/ check valve. Avoid placing pump high above grade/pond level. In-line pumps are designed to push water rather than draw water.  

Bottom Drain Benefits

  • Aids in drawing debris missed by skimmers.  
  • Draw water from the bottom and allow the entire water column to be filtered.  
  • Work to draw water in rocked ponds but are ideal in smooth sloped bottoms.  

Ang. 4” BD = 6’ Sweeping Radius

Aerated bottom drains help increase the effectiveness of a sweeping action


KOI Pond Aeration

Aeration is critical to the overall health of your fish and pond ecosystem.

Increased Aeration = Increased Turnover = More Effective filtration

Winter Care For Your Koi And Goldfish

Cover pond with leaf netting to keep out leaves and debri and birds of prey. Check your fish carefully for parasites and bacterial infections and take appropriate action before winter close up. Do not let pond freeze solid, always keep a small area open to let the gasses exchange Example ( floating pond heater) or aeration pump with diffuser stone. Do not chop a hole in the ice, because the sound waves can affect your fish health

Temperature of water in pond – When water temperature is above 55f koi will swim and start to feed normal.  When temperature falls below 50f koi begin to slow down and hibernate. At this point do not feed. Provide a natural refuge for your pond fish while they are inactive by placing large diameter plastic or terra-cotta pipe  6” wide or more.

Remember shutting down your pond pump and filtration systems in the winter months vary due to what type of pumps external or submersible. Filtration systems also vary to what type of filters whether they are in the ground filters or above ground systems. If your system requires shut down for the winter months, make sure water is drained in plumbing lines and filters and pumps.  

Disappearing Fountain Basin

Easily Install A Water Feature Anywhere.

disappearing fountain

Algae in Ponds

In the most general terms, pond algae can be divided into two types: Single Cell & String Algae

Single Cell Algae: Microscopic single cell algae causes pong water to turn a pea soup, green color. They will appear when nutrients, sunlight, and water are present. They are so small that it is not possible to simply “filter” them out of pond water.

Methods of Removal:

  • Flocculants  
  • Reduce Food Source  
  • Ben. Bacteria & Plants Help by Reducing Nutrients Needed for Algae to Survive  
  • UV Clarifiers  
  • Algaecide

String/Filamentous Algae:

String algae often appear in clear pond water.  It attaches itself to rock in streambeds and waterfalls.  Also to sides of rocks inside pond.  Blanketweed is another form of string algae.  It rises to the surface of pond during heat of the day and stinks when water cool.

Methods Of Removal:

  • Products That Remove Organic Debris  
  • Algaecide  
  • Brush/Twister  
  • Pond Vacuum

Plant Tips

Aquatic plants are an essential part of ponds & water gardens to balance the ecosystem.

Suggested Plant Coverage: 1/3 to ½ surface area coverage

Increased Plant Load: Yields increased Oxygen (DO) during the day, but too much plant load can cause oxygen deprivation at night.  Especially dangerous for ponds w/ high fish & high plant loads.

Low Plant Load: Yield increased nitrated (fertilizer) which increases the likeness for algae.

Water Lilies:  

  • Tropical (Fragrant)
    • Day Blooming  
    • Night Blooming  
  • Hardy


  • Water Hyacinth Water Lettuce


  • Traditional
    Miniature (“Bowl” Lotuses)

Submerged (“Oxygenators”):  

  • Anacharis  
  • Hornwort  
  • Cabomba

Marginal (“bog” plants):

  • Hardy
    • Cattail  
    • Iris  
    • Sweetflag  
  • Tropical
    • Giant Papyrus  
    • Umbrella Palm  
    • Water Canna

Importance Of Water Temps

General Fish Feeding Tips: Feed only as much food as fish can consume in 5 minutes.
Above 65°: Feed color enhancing & high protein food.
65° & Below: Feed wheat germ food (Spring, Fall, & Winter)

General Pond Tips:
80 °+ - Increase pump circulation OR add air pump
75 °+ - Fertilize aquatic plants 2X per month
70°+ - Add tropical aquatic plants to pond
60°+  - Begin fertilizing aquatic plants
50°+ - Begin using bacteria treatments, Re-pot aquatic plants (Spring)
50°- - Cut back aquatic plants (Fall)
45°+ - Start pumps & filters for season
45°-  - Keep opening in ice

    • Cold climates: De-Icer(s)
    • Mild climates: Airstones

Fish Feeding Tips

Feeding Rates:  

  • As much food that can be consumed in 5min  
  • ≤8” = 5% of body weight daily  
  • ≥8” = 2% of body weight daily  
  • Possible to overfeed fish, but more than likely overfeed the filter from decomposing food  
  • Most important time for fish growth rate is up to 2 years of age

Common Guidelines:  

  • Quality food reduces fish waste in water  
  • More easily digested  
  • Never overfeed  
  • It is better to feed less than too much  
  • Remove leftover food immediately  
  • Sudden temperature change: Stop feeding or reduce until normal again  
  • Spring feeding: Use easily digested diets (wheat germ)  
  • Stop Feeding: Water temperature below 50?  
  • Early Fall: High protein diet for winter storage  
  • Late Fall: Use easily digested diets (wheat germ)

Types Of Food:  

  • Easily Digested: Spring & Fall (wheat germ)  
  • Standard Diets: Complete nutrition  
  • Color Enhancing (spirulina): Develop beauty & distinct coloration  
  • Growth Diets (high protein): Helps quickly add weight and girth  
  • Advanced Diets: Deneficial bacteria added to food
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